Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon, Google, and Facebook.[
The company’s hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the Apple AirPods wireless earbuds and the HomePod smart speaker. Apple’s software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, and the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, and Xcode. Its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, and iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, and Apple Card.
Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak’s Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days. It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc., in January 1977, and sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years, Jobs and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, and Apple’s marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT.
As the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, and product focus. In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the desperately failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple’s status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, and acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc., reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, and launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, and Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months later, Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company.
Apple is well known for its size and revenues. Its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world’s largest information technology company by revenue and the world’s third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei. In August 2018, Apple became the first public U.S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018. It operates the iTunes Store, which is the world’s largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are actively in use worldwide. The company also has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world’s most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials.
The Company typically invests in highly rated securities, with the primary objective of minimizing the potential risk of principal loss. The Company’s investment policy generally requires securities to be investment grade and limits the amount of credit exposure to any one issuer. Fair values were determined for each individual security in the investment portfolio. When evaluating a marketable debt security for other-than-temporary impairment, the Company reviews factors such as the length of time and extent to which fair value has been below its cost basis, the financial condition of the issuer and any changes thereto, changes in market interest rates and the Company’s intent to sell, or whether it is more likely than not it will be required to sell the security before recovery of the security’s cost basis. As of March 30, 2019, the Company does not consider any of its marketable debt securities to be other-than- temporarily impaired.
The Company holds non-marketable equity securities of certain privately held companies without readily determinable fair values, and has elected to apply the measurement alternative. As such, the Company’s non-marketable equity securities are measured at cost, less any impairment, and are adjusted for changes in fair value resulting from observable transactions for identical or similar investments of the same issuer. Gains and losses on non-marketable equity securities are recognized in other income/(expense), net. As of March 30, 2019, the Company’s non-marketable equity securities had a carrying value of $2.3 billion.
The Company holds a non-marketable debt security that is classified and accounted for as held-to-maturity. As of March 30, 2019, the Company’s non-marketable debt security had an amortized cost basis and carrying value of $1.5 billion.
A reconciliation of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet to cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows as of March 30, 2019 is as follows (in millions):
Cash and cash equivalents
March 30, 2019
Restricted cash included in other current assets 341
Restricted cash included in other non-current assets
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
The Company’s restricted cash primarily consisted of cash required to be on deposit under a contractual agreement with a bank to support the Company’s iPhone Upgrade Program.
Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company may use derivatives to partially offset its business exposure to foreign currency and interest rate risk on expected future cash flows, net investments in certain foreign subsidiaries, and certain existing assets and liabilities. However, the Company may choose not to hedge certain exposures for a variety of reasons including, but not limited to, accounting considerations or the prohibitive economic cost of hedging particular exposures. There can be no assurance the hedges will offset more than a portion of the financial impact resulting from movements in foreign currency exchange or interest rates.
To protect gross margins from fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, certain of the Company’s subsidiaries whose functional currency is the U.S. dollar may hedge a portion of forecasted foreign currency revenue, and subsidiaries whose functional currency is not the U.S.dollar may hedge a portion of forecasted inventory purchases not denominated in the subsidiaries’functional currencies. The Company may enter into forward contracts, option contracts or other instruments to manage this risk and may designate these instruments as cash flow hedges. The Company generally hedges portions of its forecasted foreign currency exposure associated with revenue and inventory purchases, typically for up to 12 months.
To protect the net investment in a foreign operation from fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, the Company may enter into foreign currency forward and option contracts to offset a portion of the changes in the carrying amounts of these investments due to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. In addition, the Company may use non-derivative financial instruments, such as its foreign currency–denominated debt, as hedges of its net investments in certain foreign subsidiaries. In both of these cases, the Company designates these instruments as net investment hedges.
Apple Inc. | Q2 2019 Form 10-Q | 11
To protect the Company’s foreign currency–denominated term debt or marketable securities from fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, the Company may enter into forward contracts, cross-currency swaps or other instruments. These instruments may offset a portion of the foreign currency remeasurement gains or losses, or changes in fair value. The Company may designate these instruments as either cash flow or fair value hedges. As of March 30, 2019, the Company’s hedged term debt– and marketable securities–related foreign currency transactions are expected to be recognized within 23 years.
The Company may also enter into non-designated foreign currency contracts to offset a portion of the foreign currency exchange gains and losses generated by the remeasurement of certain assets and liabilities denominated in non-functional currencies.
To protect the Company’s foreign currency–denominated term debt or marketable securities from fluctuations in interest rates, the Company may enter into interest rate swaps, options or other instruments. These instruments may offset a portion of the changes in interest income or expense, or changes in fair value. The Company designates these instruments as either cash flow or fair value hedges. As of March 30, 2019, the Company’s hedged interest rate transactions are expected to be recognized within 9 years.
Cash Flow Hedges
Theeffectiveportionsofcashflowhedgesarerecordedinaccumulatedothercomprehensiveincome/(loss)(“AOCI”)untilthehedged item is recognized in earnings. Deferred gains and losses associated with cash flow hedges of foreign currency revenue are recognized as a component of net sales in the same period as the related revenue is recognized, and deferred gains and losses related to cash flow hedges of inventory purchases are recognized as a component of cost of sales in the same period as the related costs are recognized. Deferred gains and losses associated with cash flow hedges of interest income or expense are recognized in other income/(expense), net in the same period as the related income or expense is recognized. For options designated as cash flow hedges, changes in the time value are excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness. The ineffective portions and amounts excluded from the effectiveness testing of cash flow hedges are recognized in other income/(expense), net.
Derivative instruments designated as cash flow hedges must be de-designated as hedges when it is probable the forecasted hedged transaction will not occur in the initially identified time period or within a subsequent two-month time period. Deferred gains and losses in AOCI associated with such derivative instruments are reclassified into other income/(expense), net in the period of de- designation. Any subsequent changes in fair value of such derivative instruments are reflected in other income/(expense), net unless they are re-designated as hedges of other transactions.
Net Investment Hedges
The effective portions of net investment hedges are recorded in OCI as a part of the cumulative translation adjustment.The ineffective portions and amounts excluded from the effectiveness testing of net investment hedges are recognized in other income/(expense), net. For foreign exchange forward contracts designated as net investment hedges, the Company excludes changes in fair value relating to changes in the forward carry component from its assessment of hedge effectiveness. Accordingly, any gains or losses related to this forward carry component are recognized in earnings in the current period.
Fair Value Hedges
Gains and losses related to changes in fair value hedges are recognized in earnings along with a corresponding loss or gain related to the change in value of the underlying hedged item in the same line in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. For foreign exchange forward contracts designated as fair value hedges, the Company excludes changes in fair value relating to changes in the forward carry component from its assessment of hedge effectiveness. Amounts excluded from the effectiveness testing of fair value hedges were gains of $206 million and $474 million for the three- and six-month periods ended March 30, 2019, respectively, and were recognized in other income/(expense), net.
Derivatives that are not designated as hedging instruments are adjusted to fair value through earnings in the financial statement line item to which the derivative relates. As a result, during the three- and six-month periods ended March 30, 2019, respectively, the Company recognized a loss of $30 million and a gain of $225 million in net sales, a loss of $107 million and a gain of $68 million in cost of sales and losses of $77 million and $24 million in other income/(expense), net. During the three- and six-month periods ended March 31, 2018, respectively, the Company recognized losses of $203 million and $142 million in net sales, losses of $247 million and $212 million in cost of sales and losses of $331 million and $373 million in other income/(expense), net.
The Company expects its quarterly net sales and operating results to fluctuate.
The Company’s profit margins vary across its products, services, geographic segments and distribution channels. For example, gross margins on the Company’s hardware products vary across product lines and can change over time as a result of product transitions, pricing and configuration changes, and component, warranty and other cost fluctuations. The Company’s financial results may be materially adversely impacted as a result of shifts in the mix of products and services that the Company sells; shifts in the geographic, currency or channel mix of the Company’s sales; component cost increases; increases in the cost of acquiring and delivering content for the Company’s services; price competition; or the introduction of new products or services, including new products or services with higher cost structures.
The Company has historically experienced higher net sales in its first quarter compared to other quarters in its fiscal year due in part to seasonal holiday demand.Additionally, new product and service introductions can significantly impact net sales, cost of sales and operating expenses. Further, the Company generates a majority of its net sales from a single product and a decline in demand for that product could significantly impact quarterly net sales. The Company could also be subject to unexpected developments, such as lower-than-anticipated demand for the Company’s products or services, issues with new product or service introductions, information technology system failures or network disruptions, or failure of one of the Company’s logistics, components supply, or manufacturing partners.